What is bitumen?

Crude oil is a thick, dark brown or dark-green liquid that is found in the upper layers of the Earth's crust. Oil contains a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons.
Bitumen is a black and paste-shaped material that is used for wet insulation and asphalt manufacturing. Bitumen has a variety of types, each of which has a special application. Bitumen is a derivative of oil and is often produced in oil refineries.
The bitumen is a black to dark brown hydrocarbon substance completely dissolved in carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride. Bitumen is solid at ambient temperature. But as the temperature rises, it becomes dusted and then it becomes fluid. The important application of bitumen is due to the two important properties of this substance;
• water impermeability;
• Adhesion
The bitumen obtained from the Dead Sea
Types of bitumen
The bitumen extracted from petroleum or special mineral gems is called pure bitumen, which is classified according to its origin. Pure bitumen also undergoes other processes to find the properties for different applications, and make up various types of bitumen (including bitumen bitumen, bitumen, emulsion bitumen, polymer bitumen, etc.).
Bitumen and bitumen
Bitumen is usually obtained from distillation of crude oil. Such bitumen is called bitumen or bitumen distillation. Petroleum bitumen is a product of two stages of distillation of crude oil in distillation tower. In the first stage of distillation, light materials such as gasoline and propane are separated from crude oil. This process is carried out at a pressure close to an atmosphere (unit). In the second stage, heavy compounds such as diesel oil and kerosene are also released. This process takes place at a pressure close to the vacuum. Ultimately, a mixture of very fine solid particles, called asphaltenes, is immersed in a liquid lubricant called Meltan.
But some types of bitumen in nature, due to the gradual evolution of crude oil and evaporation of its volatile matter, are achieved over many years. Such bitumen is called bitumen and its durability is more than oil tar. Such bitumen may be purely in nature (lake bitumen) such as Lake Behbahan Iran, and the Thirinidad Lake of America, or extracted from mines (mineral tar). The bitumen is also called Uintaite.
Bitumen blown
Blubber bitumen is obtained from blowing hot air into pure bitumen at the final stage of purification. In this process, hot air with a temperature of 200 to 300 degrees Celsius is blown through the perforated pipes into the compartment containing bitumen. As a result of this process, the hydrogen atoms in bituminous hydrocarbon molecules combine with air oxygen and, by the formation of water, polymerization occurs. Blubber bitumen has a lower degree of penetration than pure bitumen, it has a higher degree of smoothness and a lower sensitivity to temperature variations. This kind of bitumen is used to make roofing sheets, car batteries and lacquering. Symbol R is bituminous blown bitumen. For example 80/25 R bitumen means blown bitumen with a degree of softness of 80 and a degree of penetration of 25.
Bituminous mixtures or solutions
The bitumen is mixed with a mixture of bitumen and a suitable solvent (for example, kerosene or gasoline). This bitumen is in the heat of a liquid environment or it is slightly converted to a liquid. Mixed bitumen is used in various types of pavement and macadam asphalt. The pace or hardening of this type of bitumen depends on the type of solution. For example, due to the high evaporation rate of gasoline, the bitumen dissolved in gasoline becomes more rapid. This bitumen is called the Quicksand (RC). Also, bitumen dissolved in petroleum is called bitumen digester (MC) and called bitumen (SC), which is dissolved in bituminous gas or petroleum oil. The soluble bitumen is graded according to their granular grade.
Bitter trinidad
In Trinidad, the bitumen from the mouth of the volcano is silent. The packet is broken down, and from below it picks up bitumen, which is filled with bitumen, flowing, and filling the place that has been removed. This bitumen has impurities (mineral bodies and root plants). It melts it at 160 ° C and finishes it as Trinidad-epure, containing 38.5% of the inorganic material, and 5% of the CS2 insoluble organic matter and 56.5% of the bitumen in the sulfur Carbon is dissolved. Mineral substances that are considered as volcanic ash and colloidal clay, are spread in fine grains that have increased the fine grains, degree of softness and dripping it. Dissolve bitumen tinidad in mineral oils or use bitumen oil. This bitumen has a density of 1. 4, a degree of penetration of 1.4 to 4 (at 25 ° C), a degree of softness of 78 to 84, and a breaking degree of 13 to 14.
The bitumen emulsion bitumen is obtained by mixing bitumen and water and an emulsifying agent. The amount of emulsion agent is very low and about 0.3 to 5.0 percent bitumen. The amount of water consumed by this type of bitumen is about 30 to 50% bitumen. The emulsifier is usually an alkali salt of organic acids or ammonium salts that causes bitumen to become pregnant. In this way, bituminous particles repel each other by induction load, and they are floated in the form of spheres with a diameter of one hundred to a thousandth of a millimeter. Using this type of bitumen reduces environmental pollution, and because it is not used with oil or solvent for flammability, The flammability of the bitumen is reduced. Emulsion bitumen is used for cold asphalt in wet environments or for insulation, in which case it should be added again to make up to 65% of its content.

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